What is shoulder dystocia and Risk factors for shoulder dystocia ?

What is shoulder dystocia?

Shoulder dystocia is a birth damage (also called birth trauma) that occurs when one or both of a baby’s shoulders get stuck inside the mother’s pelvis during labor and birth. In most cases of shoulder dystocia, babies are born safe and sound. But it can cause severe problems for both mom and baby. Dystocia means a slow or challenging labor or birth. 

It’s often hard for health care providers to expect or prevent shoulder dystocia. They often discover it only after labor starts. Shoulder dystocia occurs in 0.2 to 3 percent of pregnancies.

Are you at risk for shoulder dystocia?

Shoulder dystocia can happen to any woman. We know that some things make you more likely to have shoulder dystocia than others. These are called risk factors. The risk factor is something that makes you risky for a given condition. Being a risk factor does not mean that you will have shoulder dystocia. And the risk factors for shoulder dystocia are not helpful in predicting if you have them. It’s difficult to predict or pause.

Risk factors for shoulder dystocia include: 

  • Macrosomia. This is when your baby’s birth weight is over 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams). If your baby is older, you may need a cesarean birth (also known as a C section). This is the surgery your baby develops through a kit that the doctor gives to your abdomen and uterus. Most children with macrosomia born from the vagina (through the vagina) do not have shoulder dystocia. In most cases of shoulder dystocia, the weight of the baby is normal.
  • Pre-diabetes or gestational diabetes is a medical condition in which your body has high blood sugar (called glucose or blood sugar). It can damage organs in your body, including blood vessels, nerves, eyes, and kidneys. Pregnant Diabetes When you have diabetes before becoming pregnant. Diabetes during pregnancy is a type of diabetes. Diabetes is a risk factor for an older child.
  • Have shoulder dystocia in previous pregnancy
  • Pregnant twins, triplets or other multiplication
  • Being overweight or overweight during pregnancy

Conditions that are part of labor and birth also are risk factors for shoulder dystocia. These include: 

  • Take a drug called oxytocin so that you can stimulate your labor (start your labor).
  • Getting epidural to help with labor pain during labor. An epidural pain medicine that you find in the lower back of your back that helps you listen to your lower body during labor. It is the most common type of pain relief used during labor.
  • A very short or very long phase of labor. This is the part of labor where you push and give birth.
  • Having auxiliary vaginal birth (also called operative vaginal birth). This means that your provider uses force tools, such as forps or vacuum, to support the baby from the congenital canal. The forces look like big tongues. Your provider places you around your baby’s head in the vagina to help guide your baby. A vacuum is a suction cup that moves around your baby’s head in the vagina and helps guide your baby. It is the most common risk factor for shoulder dystocia.

What problems can shoulder dystocia cause?

Most mothers and babies recover from problems caused by shoulder dystocia.

Child problems can include:
  • The collarbone and arm fracture.
  • Bronchial plexus nerve damage. These nerves pass from the spinal cord to the neck in the neck. They provide the feeling and movement in the shoulders, arms and hands. Damage can cause weakness or paralysis to the arm or shoulder. Paralysis occurs when you cannot feel or move one or more parts of your body.
  • The body lacks oxygen (also known as Asphyxia). In extreme cases, it can cause brain injury or even death. It’s rare.
Mother’s problems can include:
  • Postpartum hemorrhage (also known as PPH). There is a lot of bleeding after birth.
  • Serious tearing of the perineum (area between the vagina and rectum). Surgery may be needed to repair the tearing.
  • Uterine rupture. This is what happens when the baby sheds tears during labor. It’s rare.

How is shoulder dystocia treated?

If your provider understands that you may be at risk for shoulder dystocia, she may prepare ahead of time what you should expect during labor and birth. And she can make sure the staff and the equipment at the hospital are ready.

If your provider thinks your child is older or if you have diabetes, your provider may recommend setting up a C section. If so, ask your child to wait for at least 39 weeks of pregnancy. This gives your baby the time it needs to grow and develop before birth. The C-section should be scheduled for medical reasons only. Your provider would like to schedule a C section if:

  • She thinks your baby weighs at least 5000 grams (about 11 pounds).
  • General Chat Chat Lounge You have diabetes and she thinks your baby is at least 4,500 grams (9 pounds, 15 ounces).

If you have shoulder dystocia, your provider can try several ways to move you and your baby to a better place so that your room can expand and your baby’s shoulders move. Your Provider:

  •  Press your thighs against your stomach. This is called macrobrates manoeuvring.
  • Pub On the lower abdomen just above your navel bone. This is called suprapubic pressure.
  • Help your baby’s arm with the congenital canal
  • baby Reach the vagina to try to bend your baby. Or flip you over so that you can walk on all fours (on your hands and knees).Give you an episiotomy. This is not done routinely but only in cases in which a larger opening to the vagina is helpful and the incision won’t affect the baby.
  • Do a c-section, other surgical procedures or break your baby’s collarbone to release his shoulders. These are done only in severe cases of shoulder dystocia that aren’t resolved by other methods. 
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