What is role of biotechnology in healthcare?

As for as biotechnology is concerned it is very important for human health care because the techniques of biotechnology have open new doors to learn more about the human body. Due to understand the molecular base of health and diseases this has led scientist to improve method of treating and preventing disease. It has enabled to develop therapies and vaccines.

Role of biotechnology in healthcare:

Role in vaccine development: Vaccines are antigenic protein which produce resistance against viral disease. They are antigenic but non-pathogenic. Biotechnology is used the following 3-different ways to develop vaccines.

  • Separation of a pure antigen a specific monoclonal antibody.
  • Synthesis of an antigen with the help of a cloned gene.
  • Synthesis of peptides to be used as vaccine.

Role in diagnosis of diseases :

Many human diseases can be diagnosed by using products of biotechnology like-monoclonal antibodies and DNA probes i-e-

A) Monoclonal Antibodies:

Antibodies produce by a single clone of cell is called monoclonal antibodies. They are specific to only one type of antigen. The response of immune system to any antigen is called poly clonal. However there are group of identical antibodies which is against only single type of antigen they are called monoclonal antobodies.

Production:

Antigen is first infected to living healthy mice. Mice produce antibodies against that antigen. Spleen cells of mice analysed to obtain antibodies. These cells are mixed with myeloma or cancerous cell for the purpose of rapid division. They after mixing are called hybridoma cells which are cultured and monoclonal antibodies are produced.

B) DNA/RNA-probes:

A florescent and radioactive labeled fragment of DNA is called probes. Probe may be 100-1000 base pair long fragment of DNA/RNA. Probe is used to detect the DNA sample of complementary bases. Therefore they are successfully used in diagnosis of viral and bacterial infections like-HBV,HCV and HIV.

Monoclonal antibodies and DNA-probe are used in detection of helminthes parasites and protozoans. These manoclonal antibodies a re used in blood test and it take few minutes. Where as DNA-probes take hours. For this purpose ready made probes of herpes virus and other human and plants virus are prepared. Similarly for protozoans and helminthes parasites probes are now available.

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